Author by Dave Barker-Plummer
Genre : Computers
Editor : Stanford Univ Center for the Study
ISBN : 1575866323
Type Books : PDF & Epub
File Pages : 606
Rev. ed. of: Language, proof, and logic / Jon Barwise & John Etchemendy.
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Rev. ed. of: Language, proof, and logic / Jon Barwise & John Etchemendy.
Proof and Disproof in Formal Logic is a lively and entertaining introduction to formal logic providing an excellent insight into how a simple logic works. Formal logic allows you to check a logical claim without considering what the claim means. This highly abstracted idea is an essential and practical part of computer science. The idea of a formal system—a collection of rules and axioms which define a universe of logical proofs—is what gives us programming languages and modern-day programming. This book concentrates on using logic as a tool: making and using formal proofs and disproofs of particular logical claims. The logic it uses—natural deduction—is very small and very simple; working with it helps you see how large mathematical universes can be built on small foundations. The book is divided into four parts: · Part I "Basics" gives an introduction to formal logic with a short history of logic and explanations of some technical words. · Part II "Formal syntactic proof" show you how to do calculations in a formal system where you are guided by shapes and never need to think about meaning. Your experiments are aided by Jape, which can operate as both inquisitor and oracle. · Part III "Formal semantic disproof" shows you how to construct mathematical counterexamples to show that proof is impossible. Jape can check the counterexamples you build. · Part IV "Program specification and proof" describes how to apply your logical understanding to a real computer science problem, the accurate description and verification of programs. Jape helps, as far as arithmetic allows. Aimed at undergraduates and graduates in computer science, logic, mathematics, and philosophy, the text includes reference to and exercises based on the computer software package Jape, an interactive teaching and research tool designed and hosted by the author that is freely available on the web.
"A delightful book … I should like to have written it myself." — Bertrand Russell First published in 1936, this first full-length presentation in English of the Logical Positivism of Carnap, Neurath, and others has gone through many printings to become a classic of thought and communication. It not only surveys one of the most important areas of modern thought; it also shows the confusion that arises from imperfect understanding of the uses of language. A first-rate antidote for fuzzy thought and muddled writing, this remarkable book has helped philosophers, writers, speakers, teachers, students, and general readers alike. Mr. Ayers sets up specific tests by which you can easily evaluate statements of ideas. You will also learn how to distinguish ideas that cannot be verified by experience — those expressing religious, moral, or aesthetic experience, those expounding theological or metaphysical doctrine, and those dealing with a priori truth. The basic thesis of this work is that philosophy should not squander its energies upon the unknowable, but should perform its proper function in criticism and analysis.
This Festschrift was published in honor of Andre Scedrov on the occasion of his 65th birthday. The 11 technical papers and 3 short papers included in this volume show the many transformative discoveries made by Andre Scedrov in the areas of linear logic and structural proof theory; formal reasoning for networked systems; and foundations of information security emphasizing cryptographic protocols. These papers are authored by researchers around the world, including North America, Russia, Europe, and Japan, that have been directly or indirectly impacted by Andre Scedrov. The chapter “A Small Remark on Hilbert's Finitist View of Divisibility and Kanovich-Okada-Scedrov's Logical Analysis of Real-Time Systems” is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.
This is the first book-length treatment of hybrid logic and its proof-theory. Hybrid logic is an extension of ordinary modal logic which allows explicit reference to individual points in a model (where the points represent times, possible worlds, states in a computer, or something else). This is useful for many applications, for example when reasoning about time one often wants to formulate a series of statements about what happens at specific times. There is little consensus about proof-theory for ordinary modal logic. Many modal-logical proof systems lack important properties and the relationships between proof systems for different modal logics are often unclear. In the present book we demonstrate that hybrid-logical proof-theory remedies these deficiencies by giving a spectrum of well-behaved proof systems (natural deduction, Gentzen, tableau, and axiom systems) for a spectrum of different hybrid logics (propositional, first-order, intensional first-order, and intuitionistic).
"Forall x is an introduction to sentential logic and first-order predicate logic with identity, logical systems that significantly influenced twentieth-century analytic philosophy. After working through the material in this book, a student should be able to understand most quantified expressions that arise in their philosophical reading. This books treats symbolization, formal semantics, and proof theory for each language. The discussion of formal semantics is more direct than in many introductory texts. Although forall x does not contain proofs of soundness and completeness, it lays the groundwork for understanding why these are things that need to be proven. Throughout the book, I have tried to highlight the choices involved in developing sentential and predicate logic. Students should realize that these two are not the only possible formal languages. In translating to a formal language, we simplify and profit in clarity. The simplification comes at a cost, and different formal languages are suited to translating different parts of natural language. The book is designed to provide a semester's worth of material for an introductory college course. It would be possible to use the book only for sentential logic, by skipping chapters 4-5 and parts of chapter 6"--Open Textbook Library.
Proofs and Refutations is for those interested in the methodology, philosophy and history of mathematics.
This introduction to the basic ideas of structural proof theory contains a thorough discussion and comparison of various types of formalization of first-order logic. Examples are given of several areas of application, namely: the metamathematics of pure first-order logic (intuitionistic as well as classical); the theory of logic programming; category theory; modal logic; linear logic; first-order arithmetic and second-order logic. In each case the aim is to illustrate the methods in relatively simple situations and then apply them elsewhere in much more complex settings. There are numerous exercises throughout the text. In general, the only prerequisite is a standard course in first-order logic, making the book ideal for graduate students and beginning researchers in mathematical logic, theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence. For the new edition, many sections have been rewritten to improve clarity, new sections have been added on cut elimination, and solutions to selected exercises have been included.
The Language of First-Order Logic is a complete introduction to first-order symbolic logic, consisting of a computer program and a text. The program, an aid to learning and using symbolic notation, allows one to construct symbolic sentences and possible worlds, and verify that a sentence is well formed. The truth or falsity of a sentence can be determined by playing a deductive game with the computer.
This book bridges the gaps between logic, mathematics and computer science by delving into the theory of well-quasi orders, also known as wqos. This highly active branch of combinatorics is deeply rooted in and between many fields of mathematics and logic, including proof theory, commutative algebra, braid groups, graph theory, analytic combinatorics, theory of relations, reverse mathematics and subrecursive hierarchies. As a unifying concept for slick finiteness or termination proofs, wqos have been rediscovered in diverse contexts, and proven to be extremely useful in computer science. The book introduces readers to the many facets of, and recent developments in, wqos through chapters contributed by scholars from various fields. As such, it offers a valuable asset for logicians, mathematicians and computer scientists, as well as scholars and students.